B.S., 1978, University of Arizona-Tucson, Plant Sciences.
M.S., 1986, University of Arizona-Tucson, Plant Sciences. Thesis title: "Recurrent Selection for Germination Salt Tolerance in Medicago sativa L."
Ph.D., 1993, University of Minnesota-St. Paul, Plant Physiology. Dissertation title: "Compartmentation of Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism in Alfalfa Root Nodules".